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Zvelgiant i dangu

Naktinis dangus yra vienas graziusiu gamtos reiskiniu. Nesuskaiciuojama daugybe zvaigzdziu spindi Visatos tamsumoje, planetos klaidzioja tarp zvaigzdziu, o ilauodeges kometos tai pasirodo, tai isnyksta. Astronomija-naktinio dangaus stebejimas-yra viena seniausiu mokslu.


                           Kada zmones  pradejo tyrineti zvaigzdes?


I zvaigzdes zmonija zvelgia jau milijonus metu, taciau tikrasis ju tyrinejimas prasidejo vos pries 5000 metu. Is ankstyvuju civilizaciju astronomija itin domejosi babilonieciai ir egiptieciai. Pastarieji pagal zvaigzdynu issidestima netgi state piramides. Pries 4800 metu Britanijoje buvo pastatytas Stounhendzas (,,akmenu ratas''). Spejama, kad ten buta savotiskos observatorijos, kadangi akmenys isdestiti taip, kaip Saule ir Menulis atsiduria skirtingais metu laikais. Senoves kinu ir maju civilizacijos taip pat paliko gana tikslius zvaigzdziu stebejimu irasus.


                                              Ka galima pamatyti?


Nors stebint dangu galima nemazai izvelgti ir plika akimi, taciau pro ziuronus arba teleskopa pamatytume kur kas daugiau. Pavyzdziui, plika akimi Menulis atrodo labai mazas, nesimato detaliu, o tyrinejant jo pavirsiu pro teleskopa galima isvysti kraterius.


                                           Kas isrado teleskopa?


Pirmaji teleskopa 1608 m. sukostravo olandas Hans Lippershey, taciau pirmasis dangaus skliautui stebeti ji panaudojo italu mokslininkas Galilejus. Stebejimus jis atliko 1609-1610 metu ziema. Ju metu buvo atrasti Jupiterio palydovai, krateriai Menulije bei saules demes. Galilejaus teleskopas buvo labai mazas. Veliau atsirade lauko teleskopai buvo beveik 50 metru ilgio.


                                        Kaip veikia radijo teleskopai?


Spindedama zvaigzde skleidzia net tik sviesa, bet ir radijo bangas. Joms pagauti yra konstruojami specialus radijo teleskopai, savo sandara nepanasus i paprastus teleskopus. Dazniausi radijo teleskopai atrodo kaip didziules metaline lekstes, kurios gali buti pasuktos i bet kuri dangaus taska. Pagavusi radijo bangas ''lekste'' nukreipia signala i antena. Joje signalas perduodamas i imtuva, veliau i kompiuteri, kuris pavercia signala vaizdu.


                                            Kur dirba astronomai?


Astronomai stebi zvaigzdes is observatoriu. Po milziniskais siu observatoriju kupolais irengti didziuliai teleskopai, sukonstruoti is isgaubtu veidrodziu, naudojamu zvaigzdziu sviesai sutelkti. Kai kurie veidrodziai yra 10 metru skersmens. Dabar tik menka astronominiu stebejimu dalis atliekama vizualiai, t.y., stebetojas retai sedi prie teleskopo. Beveik viskas fotografuojama, taigi, didziausi pasaulio teleskopai naudojami kaip milziniski fotografijos aparatai. Dauguma observatoriju statomos virs tankiausio atmosferos sluoksnio-kalnuose, kadangi ten naktys buna giedriesnes.


                                Kuo ypatingas kosminis teleskopas?


Nemaza dalis paskutiniujiu dideliu atradimu buvo padaryta naudojantis kosminiais teleskopais. Kosmose esantys teleskopai pagauna ne tik ryskesni vaizda, bet ir nematomus spindulius,pvz., rentgeno, kurie nepraeina pro Zemes atmosfera.


                                                         Atsakyk:


1) Kaip vadinamas mokslas apie zvaigzdes?


A) Astronautika


B) Astronomija


C) Aerobika


 


2) Kas pirmasis stebejo zvaigzdes pro teleskopa?


A) Senoves britai


B) Majai


C) Galilejus


 


3) Kokio ilgio buvo pirmieji lauko teleskopai?


A) 5 metru


B) 50 metru


C) 150 metru



4) Kur statomos siuolaikines observatorijos?


A) Menulije


B) Kalnuose


C) Sleniuose.

Rodyk draugams

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